References Icon.jpgWelcome to the References and Links Page!

We hope you found this site and the references useful in guiding your understanding of self-directed learning and investigating ventures in the self-guided learning environment. Let us know if there are others you would like us to add.


Autodidactism. (n.d.) Wikipedia. Retrieved from

Definitions of Independent learning – an overview. (2012).[1].pdf

Dinsmore, Scott. (2011). The birth of self-guided education (the only real option left). Retrieved from

Dinsmore, Scott. (2011). The 27 principles to teaching yourself anything (aka the self-guided education manifesto. Retrieved from

Empson, R. (2012). Smart Education: How Hit $70M In Revenue Without A Penny From Investors. TechCrunch. N.p., n.d. Retrieved from

Guided discovery learning. (2012). EduTech Wiki. Retrieved from

Hanor, J. & Hayden, K. (2004). Using reflective practice and self-directed learning to advance growth in educational technology. International Journal of Self-directed Learning, 1 (2).

Hiemstra, R. (1994). Self-directed learning. In T. Husen & T. N. Postlethwaite (Eds.), The International Encyclopedia of Education (second edition), Oxford: Pergamon Press. Retrieved from

Hiemstra, Roger. (2004). Self-directed learning lexicon. International Journal of Self-directed Learning, 1 (2).

Hunley, S. & Schaller, M. (2009). Assessment: The key to creating spaces that promote learning. Educause Review 44 (2), 26-25. Retrieved from

Inc. 5000. (2011) 2011 Inc. 500 & 5000: Company Profile. N.p., n.d. Retrieved from

King, C. (2011). Fostering self-directed learning through guided tasks and learner reflection. Studies in Self-Access Learning Journal, 2(4), 257-267. Retrieved from

Lee, J. & Gibson, C. (2003). Developing self-direction in an online course through computer-mediated interaction. The American Journal of Distance Education, 17(3), 173-187.

Lin, Michelle. (2011) What’s wrong with self-guided learning? Retrieved from

Lowry, C.M. (n.d.) Supporting and facilitating self directed learning. Retrieved from

Marketing to Individual Learners: Bonanza or Booby Trap

Mocker, D. W., and Spear, G. E. (1982) "Lifelong Learning: Formal, Nonformal, Informal, and Self-Directed." Information Series No. 241. Columbus: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education, The National Center for Research in Vocational Education, The Ohio State University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 220 723).

Quotes about unschooling and self-directed learning. (2012) Life Learning Magazine. Retrieved from

Self directed learning: A four step process. CTE Tip Sheet (n.d.) Retrieved from

Self guided e-learning ?: L&T blog: About learning, training and technology at ITC-ILO (n.d.) retrieved from

Siebert, Stephan. (2011). Become [audio file] Retrieved from

Smith, M. K. (1996) Self-Direction.

Smith, M. K. (2002). Malcolm Knowles, informal adult education, self-direction and andragogy'. Encyclopedia of informal education. Retrieved from

Thompson, T. & Wulff, S. (2004). Implemeting guided self-directed learning strategies (GSDL) in intermediate and advanced level chemistry courses. International Journal of Self-directed Learning, 1(2).

Williamson, S.N. (2007). Development of a self-rating scale of self-directed learning. Nurse Researcher, 14(2).

Wulff, S., Burke E., Hurley J. (2001). Guided self-directed learning: Strategies for distance and on-site education. 17th annual conference on distance teaching and learning. Retrieved from

Examples of Self-Guided Learning Sites

Organizational Development & Effectiveness. (2011) The George Washington University. Retrieved from

Online Language Courses: Learn at Your Own Pace. (2012). Retrieved from

Self-Directed Learning site:

Additional Links

Hiemstra, R. 'Self-directed Learning.' (1998). The Sourcebook for Self-Directed Learning. Ed. Bill Rothwell. (New York: HRD Press): 9-19.